Life: The Science of Biology

Author:
Sadava, Hills & Heller

Publisher:
Macmillan Learning

Edition:
11th

ISBN:
9781319130848

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Intro - 1 Video(s)

1. Introduction, Course Organization of MIT 7.016 Introductory Biology, Fall 2018


This introductory video gives a view of the fundamental principles that are common to all living organisms. It goes over the outline of each chapter covered in this series and gives a basic introduction to all the topics.

Sections 2.1 - 2.4 - 1 Video(s)

2. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Interactions; Lipids and Membranes


In this video, the professor talks about the molecules of life and covers the basics of covalent and non-covalent chemical bonding. She then focuses on macromolecules and their proportions relative to each other. She elaborates on lipids, their structures and properties, and the formation of lipid bilayers. Nucleic acids, carbohydrates and proteins are also discussed.

Sections 3.2 - 1 Video(s)

3. Structures of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins


After wrapping up the lecture on lipids in the previous video, this lecture moves on to discussing amino acids, peptides, and proteins. It talks about peptide linkages, and discusses the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins, and explains how shape and surface chemistry contribute to protein function. Lastly, it talks about collagen and its role in the human body.

Section 3.3 - 1 Video(s)

5. Carbohydrates and Glycoproteins


This video begins with a wrap-up of the previous lecture on enzymes, and then moves on to discussing carbohydrates. It discusses the chemical structures and functions of carbohydrates and explains how monosaccharides are simple sugars. It talks about how glycosidic linkages bond monosccharides, and discusses how chemically modified carbohydrates contain additional functional groups.

Section 4.1 - 4.4 - 1 Video(s)

6. Nucleic Acids


In this final lecture of the Biochemistry unit, the professor covers nucleotides and nucleic acids, discussing their structures and their importance as fundamental units for information storage and information transfer. The video explains how DNA is converted into messenger RNA, which, through the help of transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA, we get proteins. It also discusses how the DNA base sequence reveals evolutionary relationships, and talks about the other roles of nucleotides.

Section 5.1 - 5.3 - 1 Video(s)

11. Cells, the Simplest Functional Units


This video discusses the key features of cells, from the relatively simple organization of prokaryotic cells to the more complex organization of eukaryotic cells. It then covers cell compartments, transport, mitochondria, and the cytoskeleton. It discusses what features make cells the fundamental units of life, and also discusses what features characterize prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Section 5.1 - 2 Video(s)

29. Cell Imaging Techniques


Professor Martin introduces cell imaging techniques, which are tools that allow biologists to observe what's going on living cells. He goes over several types of microscopy and discusses how each deals with the challenges of resolution and contrast. This lecture video corresponds with Section 5.1 from the book, which discusses the features that make cells the fundamental units of life.

27. Visualizing Life – Dyes and Stains


In this first of three lectures on visualizing life, Professor Imperiali talks about the applications of luminescence and fluorescence in service to biology. This lecture covers their discovery and how they were developed into widely-used tools. It corresponds with Section 5.1 from the book, which discusses the features that make cells the fundamental units of life.

Section 7.1 - 7.5 - 2 Video(s)

20. Cell Signaling 1 – Overview


In this video, the professor introduces cell signaling. In the first of two lectures on this topic, she covers the paradigms and mechanics of cell signaling. It discusses what signals are, and how cells respond to them. Further, it also explains how signal receptors initiate a cellular response. Lastly, it explains how cells in a multicellular organism communicate directly.

21. Cell Signaling 2 – Examples


A continuation of the previoud video, here the professor discusses how the response to a signal is transduced through the cell. Also, it talks about how cells change in response to signals. Furthermore, it also discusses how cells in a multicellular organism communicate directly.

Sections 8.1 - 8.5 - 1 Video(s)

4. Enzymes & Metabolism


After a brief summary of the previous lecture, this video continues with amino acids, peptides, and proteins, with a focus on a protein variant that is the cause of sickle cell anaemia. It then introduces enzymes for the remainder of the lecture. It talks about the physical principles that underlie biological energy transformations and discusses how enzyme activity is regulated.

Section 11.1 - 11.5 - 1 Video(s)

12. Genetics 1 – Cell Division & Segregating Genetic Material


In this first lecture on genetics, the professor talks about how information flows between cells, such as from parent cells to daughter cells. He also talks about information flows from one generation to the next, ending lecture with a demo. The video explains what happens during mitosis and discusses the role of cell division in sexual life cycle. Lastly, it also explains what happens durign meiosis.

Section 11.7 - 2 Video(s)

25. Cancer 1


"After previous lectures on how cell division is regulated at the single cell level, and how regeneration is mediated at the level of an entire tissue, the professor talks about how all of that can go wrong, resulting in cancer. It explains how unregulated cell division leads to cancer, and discusses how cancer cells differ from normal cells. Also, it explains how cancer cells lose control over the cell cycle and apoptosis, and that cancer treatments target the cell cycle."

26. Cancer 2


"After previous lectures on how cell division is regulated at the single cell level, and how regeneration is mediated at the level of an entire tissue, the professor talks about how all of that can go wrong, resulting in cancer. It explains how unregulated cell division leads to cancer, and discusses how cancer cells differ from normal cells. Also, it explains how cancer cells lose control over the cell cycle and apoptosis, and that cancer treatments target the cell cycle."

Section 11.6 - 1 Video(s)

35. Reproductive Cloning and Embryonic Stem Cells


"This lecture begins with early mammalian development and the differentiation of cell types, thus setting the stage for reproductive cloning and stem cells. It discusses how cells die in living organisms, and talks about the processes of development. Also, it discusses whether cell differentiation is reversible, and explains how nuclear transfer allows the cloning of animals."

Section 12.1 - 1 Video(s)

13. Genetics 2 – Rules of Inheritance


This lecture continues with genetics, discussing the laws of inheritance, and how they connect to the behavior of chromosomes undergoing meiosis. It talks about the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance, and discusses Mendels' first and second laws. Also, it explains how Mendel's laws can be observed in human pedigrees.

Section 12.4 - 12.5 - 2 Video(s)

14. Genetics 3 – Linkage, Crossing Over


This lecture picks up from the last lecture on eye color in fruit flies, and then continues with Mendelian inheritance. It then talks about linkage, crossing over, and gene mapping. It discusses the relationship between genes and chromosomes, and discusses the effects of genes outside the nucleus.

15. Genetics 4 – The power of model organisms in biological discovery


In this lecture on model organisms, the professor discusses how to go from a phenotype of interest (such as appearance or behavior) to identifying the genes and mechanisms that are important for that trait. It then talks about linkage, crossing over, and gene mapping. It discusses the relationship between genes and chromosomes, and discusses the effects of genes outside the nucleus.

Section 12.2 - 1 Video(s)

18. SNPs & Human genetics


Using the example of aniridia, which disrupts formation of the iris, the professor describes how to clone a gene that's responsible for a disease. He covers the techniques of positional gene cloning, genomic mapping, cDNA libraries, and hybridization. The video also discusses how alleles interact and some alleles have multiple phenotypic effects.

Section 13.3 - 13.4 - 1 Video(s)

7. Replication


Having introduced nucleic acids in the previous lecture, this video now focuses on their role in information storage and information transfer, beginning with the process of replication. It discusses the DNA replication experiment carried out by Alfred Hershey and Martha Casey - infecting bacteria with bacteriophage. Furthermore, it explains how DNA is copied and also talks about replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Section 14.1 - 14.3 - 1 Video(s)

8. Transcription


After covering accuracy, speed, and repair mechanisms in DNA replication, this lecture moves onto the process of transcription and the generation of mature mRNA. It talks about the evidence that genes code for proteins, and explains how information flows from genes to proteins. Also, it discusses how the information content in DNA is transcribed to produce RNA.

Section 14.4 - 1 Video(s)

9. Chromatin Remodeling and Splicing


"This lecture begins with a focuses on transcription control, and ends with an introduction to translation, to be covered in detail during the next lecture. It explains how eukaryotic DNA is transcribed and the RNA is processed. Also, it discusses how many eukaryotic genes are interrupted by noncoding sequences, and also talks about how eukaryotic gene transcripts are processed before translation."

Section 14.5 - 1 Video(s)

10. Translation


"This lecture covers the details of translation, the biosynthesis of protein using mRNA. The video focuses on the molecular players involved in the process. It explains how transfer RNAs carry specific amino acids and bind to specific codons. Also, it discusses that the ribosome is the workbench for translation, and that translation takes place in three steps. Lastly, it discusses how polysome formation increases the rate of protein synthesis"

Section 14.6 - 1 Video(s)

19. Cell Trafficking and Protein Localization


"Here, the professor talks about trafficking, or how things get to where they need to be within a cell. She discusses the mechanisms by which proteins are coded very early on in their biogenesis, in order to go to certain locales in or out of the cell. It explains what happens to polypeptides after translation and discusses how signal sequences in proteins direct them to their cellular destinations."

Section 18.1 - 18.3 - 1 Video(s)

16. Recombinant DNA, Cloning, & Editing


In this video, the focus shifts from pure genetics to molecular genetics, beginning with cloning, followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and finally genome editing. It explains what a recombinant DNA is, and discusses how new genes are inserted into cells. Also, it discusses what biotechnology is, and how it is changing agriculture and medicine.

Section 19.1 - 19.5 - 1 Video(s)

24. Stem Cells, Apoptosis, & Tissue Homeostasis


In this video, the professor talks about the regenerative and renewal capabilities of cells, covering adult stem cells and apoptosis. To help illustrate this, he uses the lining (epithelium) of the intestine as a model organ. It discusses the processes of development and explains whether cell differentiation is reversible or not.